JACKSON AVW (1938) New personality out-of Mani, brand new creator away from Manichaeism

Although present it is like the guy was basically absent, and although alive it’s since if he was dry

Record of your own American Chinese language Community 58: 235-forty. Supposed representations out of Mani or Manes, c. 216-276 Ce, is actually talked about, which have idea of traditions indexed by the al-Nadim (writing c. 987 Le) you to Mani are lame in both ft or in their correct foot. You to definitely culture could be backed by retranslation away from an expression in the brand new Pahlavi Denkart (step three.200, 1-13) (select Dinkard, above), applying the label ‘broken’ or ‘crippled’ so you’re able to Mani (select below, al-Nadim, Fihrist, pp. 773, 794).

Al-JAHIZ (Abu Othman Amr container Bahr). Al-Barsan wal-Argan wal-Umyan wal-Hawlan [The newest Lepers, brand new Lame, the fresh Blind, and the Squinting], ed. Abdel-Salam Haroun (1998). Cairo. Al-Jahiz (776-868) try a respected, influential and you can significantly unattractive journalist with ‘goggle eyes’ (jahiz), on Basra (today during the Iraq), whoever really works might have been far quoted over the Arab industry. Here, predicated on Michael Dols, the guy chatted about “physical infirmities particularly epidermis conditions, lameness, paralysis, and you may deafness and personal attributes like balding, leanness, and you will ugliness.” Their point were to reveal that “physical infirmities and you can distinct features do not hinder a single off becoming a fully effective member of the latest Muslim society otherwise bar your regarding extremely important offices. Al-Jahiz maintained that actual problems are not societal stigmas but they are just what is generally called signs of divine true blessing otherwise favor.” (M Dols, 1983, The new leper inside Medieval Islamic people. Speculum 58: 891-916, with the p. 901) Even with their own exposure to bad personal reactions, al-Jahiz in one of his best-known performs, ‘The Secret away from Creation’, typed harshly on the public regions of deafness. Apart from the deaf man or woman’s death of audio, “People are bored in his company in which he are a weight in it. He could be incapable of hear the people’s stories and you can discussions. ” (quoted from the F. Haj, Impairment inside Antiquity, q.v., p. 159). A new commentator notes you to definitely “Al-Barsan wal-Argan. ” is among the most difficult functions by Jahiz, and its own material is virtually book in historical Arabic literary works. (Truth be told there cannot seem to be an English translation available at present).

Look for 2nd circumstances

JAIN, Jagdish C (1947) Existence inside Ancient India because Represented on the Jain Canons. Bombay: This new Book Company. Illness and you can procedures, along with individuals handicaps, off Jaina provide (pp. 178-81). People who have disabilities, plus mental retardation, is actually omitted of joining religious commands (194). See Tattvartha Sutra, below; including 2nd several circumstances).

[JAINA Texts] Gaina Sutras interpreted out-of Prakrit, transl. Hermann Jacobi, dos vols, (1884 and you will 1895), SBE twenty two & forty five, Oxford: Clarendon. [This new SBE series utilized an enthusiastic italicised ‘G’ as opposed to ‘J’, needless to say reasons. Right here ‘Gaina’ could have been reinserted in the typical alphabetical order to have convenience.] – The fresh Akaranga Sutra (for the vol. I), out of probably the fifth century Le, gave training for good holy and you may innocuous life. Disability and handicap come, elizabeth.g. “into damage of the perceptions of your own ear canal, vision, body organs out-of smelling, tasting, holding, men will get alert to the new decline out-of lives” (vol. I: p. 15) [Bk We (2) 1]. Good fresh fruit regarding incorrect acts into the prior to lifestyle are: “Comes and you may leprosy, consumption, dropping sickness, loss of sight and you will firmness, lameness and humpbackedness, Dropsy and dumbness, look! apoplexy (?) and you can eyes-situation, trembling and you may crippledness, elephantiasis and you can diabetic issues, These represent the 16 ailment enumerated when you look at the owed acquisition; as well as them many afflictions and you will injuries occur.” (I: 54) [Bk We (6) 1.] But really right-minded somebody will be take time to fool around with harmless terms when conference you aren’t instance requirements. It “must not cam of them like this: ‘He has got boils otherwise leprosy, an such like [including new terminology revealed a lot more than]; his hands was slash, or their base, nose, ear, lip was cut.’ Getting just like the every such people, spoken to help you such language kissbrides.com pronaД‡i ovdje, feel mad, and that, offered really, they should not keep in touch with them such words.” (I: 152-53) [Bk II, (4) dos.] – Brand new Uttaradhyayana Sutra (inside Vol. II) and notes handicap that have ageing, “When your muscles expands dated, as well as your hair converts white, the effectiveness of your ears decreases”, furthermore on attention, nostrils, language, reach (II: p. 44) [part X]. – The Sutrakritanga Sutra (when you look at the Vol. II) states in the passage brand new “blind-produced people” (p. 243), and you may “guys just who walk-on crutches” (p. 269). Monks hankering immediately after wedding are informed of your terrible disablement out-of you to definitely problem: getting bought regarding the regarding start right up until midnight from the wife, and the remaining nights soothing babies and laundry their nappies (pp. 275-78). Monks just who indulge in erotic delights are guaranteed nevertheless tough vexation when they die; and then they “might possibly be born deaf-and-dumb, otherwise blind [footnote: possibly blind because of the birth, otherwise certainly stupid otherwise ignorant], otherwise stupid of the delivery.” (p. 363; similar into pp. 367, 430) [Bk 2 (2); and you may dos (7)].

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